Washers are valuable types of equipment or accessories, that are useful for industrial applications. They can be manufactured for specific purposes and product requirements to meet the industrial end-use. The washers are thin, disk-shaped plates with holes in the middle. They can be both metallic or non-metallic and are placed beneath a nut, joint, axle bearing, or other threaded fasteners. The washers act as spacers and are placed between the screw and the surface to prevent leakage and corrosion, relieve friction, isolate, and avoid loosening. They also help to distribute pressure and minimize the vibrations the machine or equipment produces.
Countersunk or finishing washers
Torque washers, and
Lock washers help to secure fasteners that tend to rotate or lose friction. These washers may be of different types but function according to the same principle. Its design helps exert a load, partially deform, and lock a fastener in place. Some lock washers bite into the bolt and nut with their ends. It is instrumental in transportation industries, including aerospace and automotive. It also finds use in domestic appliances, like washing machines.
Flat washers are also known as Type A plain washers. These are slender, flat, circular washers with holes in their center, resembling a ring shape. The role of these washers is to increase the screw's bearing surface area size and reduce the surface pressure applied on the fastened object. Standardized flat washers are generally designed by using imperial or metric dimensions. When distributing the fastener's load, these washers help to reduce the heat and friction generated during the tightening process. It finds use in various domestic and industrial applications.
Spring washers are manufactured by cutting out a particular portion of the flat washer that gives it a twisted shape. It enables it to take the spring action. Spring washers are metallic. These washers provide an axial load to fasteners if vibration or thermal expansion, limiting movement. Applications that prefer flexibility generally use this washer. Therefore, it finds extensive use in the aerospace industry.